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 Aircraft VARIABLE COSTS

  • FUEL COST Fuel cost per gallon is based on a Conklin & de Decker survey of a number of Fixed Base Operators (FBOs) at major general aviation airports in the United States. Price includes all taxes and fees.
  • FUEL BURN The average fuel burn is depicted in gallons per hour for the make/model aircraft. All data is generally derived from flight manuals and is calculated at typical cruise speeds and includes ground fuel. Cruise altitude assumed for unpressurized aircraft is 8,000 feet. For pressurized aircraft a flight altitude corresponding to an 8,000 foot or less cabin altitude is used.
    • Fifteen percent is added to the final figure to account for less than ideal operating conditions. Many factors led us to add this extra 15%.
      • Pilot flying techniques - Using other than recommended power settings.
      • Air Traffic Control Restrictions - restricting the aircraft to less than optimum altitudes. Lower altitudes usually increase fuel burn.
      • Ground delays – Running engines while spending extra time on the ground.
      • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) operation – Running the APU can amount to 20-30 gph.
      • Tankering Fuel - Carrying more fuel than is required for a single flight.
    • Jets – The fuel burn calculation includes taxi, take-off and climb, cruise, descent and landing for a 600 NM trip. This includes a crew of two at 200 lbs each (one for FAR 23 certified aircraft) and four passengers at 200 lbs each unless otherwise noted. Fuel for the NBAA IFR reserves for a 200 NM alternate is also included in the calculation.
    • Turboprops – The fuel burn calculation includes taxi, take-off and climb, cruise, descent and landing for a 300 NM trip. This includes a crew of two at 200 lbs each (one for aircraft 12,500 lbs MTOGW and under) and four passengers at 200 lbs each unless otherwise noted. Fuel for the NBAA IFR reserves for a 200 NM alternate is also included in the calculation.
    • Piston – The fuel burn calculation includes taxi, take-off and climb, cruise, descent and landing for a 200 NM trip. This includes a crew of one at 200 lbs and two passengers at 200 lbs each unless otherwise noted. 30 minute VFR reserve fuel is also included in the calculation.
    • Helicopter – Numerous surveys of helicopter operators have confirmed our fuel burn calculations. Cruise altitude is assumed to be 2,000 feet. The fuel burn calculation includes taxi, take-off and climb, cruise, descent and landing for a 50 NM trip. This includes a crew of two at 200 lbs each and four passengers at 200 lbs each unless otherwise noted.
  • FUEL ADDITIVES The cost of fuel additives used for anti-icing or as a fungicide. Also includes the unscavenged engine oil on Rolls-Royce Viper engines.
  • LUBRICANTS (Piston Aircraft Only)  – Cost of all lubricants such as engine oil and transmission oil.
  • MAINTENANCE - LABOR
                 Fixed Wing Aircraft
                 Maintenance labor cost estimates for fixed wing aircraft reflect a 10 year time period to balance warranty with                              mature aircraft costs.

                What is included in our Fixed Wing Aircraft labor calculation:
                All labor required for:
    • Unscheduled maintenance discrepancies.
    • Troubleshooting unscheduled maintenance discrepancies.
    • Scheduled maintenance to include any inspections that occur during the 10 year time period.
    • Line replacement of parts.
    • Removal/replacement labor incident to overhaul of components.
    • Minor airworthiness directives and service bulletins.
    • On-condition maintenance labor required for the airframe and avionics. 
    • Routine engine maintenance not covered by the Jet Support Services Inc. (JSSI) Premium engine maintenance plan 
                 What is not included on our Fixed Wing Aircraft labor calculation:
                  Labor required for: 
    • Any inspection that falls outside of the 10 year time period.
    • Major engine maintenance covered by the JSSI Premium engine maintenance plan.
    • Off aircraft overhaul and repair of components, life extension programs, wing demates and replacement of components with life limits.
    • Maintenance labor required for optional equipment aircraft completion items (interior), aircraft cleaning and washing, any administrative labor, stocking of aircraft supplies or travel to repair aircraft

                 Helicopters
 
                Maintenance labor costs for helicopters assume one full operational life of the helicopter. An aging factor is applied                        based on the age of the aircraft.
 
                What is included in our Helicopter labor calculation: 
                All labor required for:
    • Unscheduled maintenance discrepancies.
    • Troubleshooting unscheduled maintenance discrepancies.
    • All inspections.
    • Line replacement of parts.
    • Removal/replacement labor incident to overhaul of components.
    • Minor airworthiness directives and service bulletins.
    • On-condition maintenance labor required for the airframe and avionics.
    • Routine engine maintenance not covered during engine overhaul.
                 What is not included in our Helicopter labor calculation:
                  Labor required for:
    • Major engine maintenance.
    • Maintenance labor required for optional equipment aircraft completion items (interior), aircraft cleaning and washing, any administrative labor, stocking of aircraft supplies or travel to repair aircraft. 

  • MAINTENANCE – PARTS
                  Fixed Wing Aircraft
 
                 What is included in our Fixed Wing Aircraft parts calculation:
    • All airframe, avionics and minor engine consumable parts required for routine scheduled line maintenance.
    • Unscheduled maintenance.
    • On-condition maintenance.
    • Parts associated with airworthiness directives and mandatory service bulletins.
                 What is not included in our Fixed Wing parts calculation:
    • Parts used in the normal overhaul of components, life-limited parts and engines
    • Parts required for major hard time inspections, inventory costs, optional equipment, and aircraft completion items (interior).
                 Helicopters
 
                 What is included in our Helicopter parts calculation:
    • All airframe, avionics and minor engine consumable parts required for routine scheduled line maintenance.
    • Unscheduled maintenance
    • On-condition maintenance
    • 20% of the total component overhaul and life limited parts cost has been added to account for  premature removal of these parts due to failure
    • Parts associated with airworthiness directives and mandatory service bulletins.
                  What is not included in our Helicopter parts calculation:
    • Inventory costs, optional equipment, and aircraft completion items (interior). 
       
  • ENGINE RESTORATION COST
    • Fixed Wing - Engine allowances for each turbine fixed wing aircraft are based on a 10-year average of the Jet Support Services, Incorporated Complete program. JSSI Complete covers scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, all required inspections and overhauls, airworthiness directives, service bulletins, and loaner engines. If no JSSI program is available, a manufacturer's plan or estimated set-aside to cover equivalent costs is used. All piston fixed wing aircraft use a set aside estimate to cover the cost of an overhaul of the engine at the recommended Time Between Overhaul (TBO).
    • Helicopter - The engine costs are estimated using an accrual system. Our costs include an estimate of the funds an operator should set aside in order to pay for engine restoration maintenance over the full operational life of the helicopter.  Our estimates are derived from our Life Cycle Cost program. We calculate the engine costs at two cycles per hour through two overhauls. We do this to include the costs of cycle sensitive life limited part items that occur during the second overhaul.
  • MAJOR PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
    • Major Inspections – The maintenance labor and parts costs required for major aircraft inspections (heavy maintenance) are not included unless otherwise noted. An example of this would be a “D” check. Dynamic Component Overhaul and Life Limited Parts The maintenance labor and parts costs required for overhaul of major components and life-limited parts are not included. An example of this would be a landing gear overhaul.
    • Dynamic Component Overhaul and Life Limited Parts
      • Fixed Wing - The maintenance labor and parts costs required for overhaul of major components and life-limited parts are not included. An example of this would be a landing gear overhaul.
      • Helicopter - The component overhaul costs and Life Limited Parts replacement are estimated using an accrual system. Our costs include an estimate of the funds an operator should set aside in order to pay for the labor and parts required for component overhauls over the full operational life of the helicopter. For example, a component overhaul due at 20,000 hours and a cost of $20,000 would be included at $1 per hour.
    • THRUST REVERSER OVERHAUL (Jets Only) – The parts and labor costs required to overhaul the thrust reversers with a set overhaul interval. Routine costs for on-condition thrust reversers are included in the maintenance-parts and labor. For aircraft with optional thrust reversers, an allowance will not be shown unless they are installed on half or more of the current fleet.
  • PROPELLER OVERHAUL (Turboprop and Piston Aircraft)
    • The maintenance labor and parts costs required to overhaul the propellers, including the cost of any life limited parts.
  • APU MAINTENANCE OVERHAUL
    • Includes all costs associated with the maintenance and overhaul of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) except routine, minor servicing and maintenance. For Honeywell units, if covered by JSSI Complete, it is their annual fee divided by the aircraft’s annual flight hours; otherwise it is the Honeywell MSP hourly rate. For other units manufactured by other than Honeywell, we use JSSI’s hourly rates. If the unit is not covered by JSSI, if not we estimate the hourly cost.
  • LANDING AND PARKING FEES
    • Represents typical U.S. charges associated with landing and parking the aircraft away from home base. We use a formula based on the maximum gross weight of the aircraft
  • CREW EXPENSES
    • The costs incurred by the crew when away from home base for accommodations, transportation, and meals incurred by the crew when away from home base. The costs are typical of a major metropolitan area.
  • SMALL SUPPLIES AND CATERING
    • The costs incurred for minor supplies for the cabin and cockpit (flashlight batteries, napkins, toilet paper) and all in-flight catering for the crew and passengers. We use a formula based on the number of crew plus passengers and size of the aircraft. Larger aircraft will incur higher costs.

 

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